Simplest formula for the number of elements, numbers of Gamow

Изменено: 16.11.2018 Posted on

Recognizing the last  transactinide chemical element of the 7th period with highest atomic number 118 of all known elements give a simple formula for the number of elements 118=2+2(8+18+32)

We called it «element 118», with the symbol of (118) or even simply 118.[2] Using Mendeleev’s nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, it is eka-radon (until the 1960s as eka-emanation, the old name for radon).[9] Traditionally, the names of all noble gases end in «-on», with the exception of helium, which was not known to be a noble gas when discovered.

(In 1979, IUPAC assigned the systematic placeholder name ununoctium  with the symbol of Uuo,[38] [39]  The IUPAC guidelines  required all new elements be named with the ending «-ium», even if they turned out to be halogens (traditionally ending in «-ine») or noble gases (traditionally ending in «-on»).[46] While the provisional name ununoctium followed this convention, a new IUPAC recommendation published in 2016 recommended using the «-on» ending for new group 18 elements, regardless of whether they turn out to have the chemical properties of a noble gas.[47] 

According to IUPAC recommendations, the discoverers of a new element have the right to suggest a name.[41] Berkeley had intended to name the element ghiorsium (Gh), after Albert Ghiorso.[40] In 2007, the head of the Russian institute stated the team were considering two names for the new element: flyorium, in honor of Georgy Flyorov, the founder of the research laboratory in Dubna; and moskovium, in recognition of the Moscow Oblast where Dubna is located.[42][43]These names were later proposed for element 114 (flerovium) and element 116 (moscovium).[44] However, the final name proposed for element 116 was instead livermorium,[45] and the name moscovium was later proposed and accepted for element 115 instead.[14]

In June 2016 IUPAC announced that the discoverers planned to give the element the name oganesson (symbol: Og), in honour of the Russian nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian, a pioneer in superheavy element research for sixty years reaching back to the field’s foundation: his team and his proposed techniques had led directly to the synthesis of elements 106 to 113 in cold fusion reactions with lead-208 and bismuth-209 targets, as well as elements 112 through 118 through hot fusion reactions with calcium-48 projectiles.[48] The name became official on 28 November 2016.[14]  After the Joint Working Party of international scientific bodies International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and International Union of Pure and Applied Physics ( IUPAC and IUPAP on 28 November 2016[12][13]   recognized the element’s discovery (to the Dubna–Livermore collaboration[36]  with Yuri Oganessianatomic mass of the isotope 294Og, first synthesized in 2002, 249 98Cf+ 48 20Ca294 118Og+ 3 n.

only two elements named after a living person at the time of naming, the other being seaborgium.[14]

The radioactive oganesson atom is very unstable,  possible compounds, theoretical calculations and  predictions, including some surprises. For example, although oganesson is a member of group 18  (the noble gases)[1]   under normal conditions may be a solid due to relativistic effects.[1] On the periodic table of the elements it is a p-block element as (predicted) [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p6[1][2]

The daughter nucleus 290Lv is very unstable, decaying with a lifetime of 14 milliseconds into 286
Fl
, which may experience either spontaneous fission or alpha decay into 282
Cn
, which will undergo spontaneous fission.[10]

In a quantum-tunneling model (see Gamow), the alpha decay half-life of 294Og was predicted to be 0.66+0.23 −0.18 ms[33] with the experimental Q-value published in 2004.[34] Calculation with theoretical Q-values from the macroscopic-microscopic model of Muntian–Hofman–Patyk–Sobiczewski gives somewhat lower but comparable results.[35]

  This was on account of two 2009 and 2010 confirmations of the properties of the granddaughter of 294Og, 286Fl, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as well as the observation of another consistent decay chain of 294Og by the Dubna group in 2012. The goal of that experiment had been the synthesis of 294Ts via the reaction 249Bk(48Ca,3n), but the short half-life of 249Bk resulted in a significant quantity of the target having decayed to 249Cf, resulting in the synthesis of oganesson instead of tennessine.[37]

*In his 1961 book The Atom and its Nucleus, Gamow proposed representing the periodic system of the chemical elements as a continuous tape, with the elements in order of atomic number wound round in a three-dimensional helix whose diameter increased stepwise (corresponding to the longer rows of the conventional periodic table).

 

 

*Gamow (March 4 1904 – August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a theoretical physicist and cosmologist,  developer of Lemaître’s Big Bang theory. He discovered a theoretical explanation of alpha decay via quantum tunneling, and worked on radioactive decay of the atomic nucleus, star formation, stellar nucleosynthesis and Big Bang nucleosynthesis (which he collectively called nucleocosmogenesis), and molecular genetics.

Gamow wrote popular books on science, including One Two Three … Infinity and the Mr Tompkins series of books (1939–1967). Some of his books are still in print, more than a half-century after their original publication, so we offer to add new parts

Gamow was born in Odessa, Russian Empire. His father taught Russian language and literature in high school, and his mother taught geography and history at a school for girls, to speak some French. He was educated at the Institute of Physics and Mathematics in Odessa[1] (1922–23) and at the University of Leningrad (1923–1929). Gamow studied and aspired to do his doctoral thesis under Alexander Friedmann in Leningrad, until Friedmann’s early death in 1925.

Gamow made friends with three other students of theoretical physics, Lev Landau, Dmitri Ivanenko, and Matvey Bronshtein (who was later arrested in 1937 and executed in 1938 by the Soviet regime), a group known as the Three Musketeers, which met to discuss and analyze the ground-breaking papers on quantum mechanics published during those years. He later used the same phrase to describe the Alpher, Herman, and Gamow group.

On graduation, he worked on quantum theory in Göttingen, for his doctorate, and at the Theoretical Physics Institute of the University of Copenhagen, from 1928 to 1931, with a break to work with Ernest Rutherford at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (proposing the «liquid drop» model  and stellar physics with Robert Atkinson and Fritz Houtermans).

In 1931 Gamow was elected a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR at age 28 – one of the youngest in the history of this organization.[2][3][4] in 1931–1933 worked in the Physical Department of the Radium Institute (Leningrad) headed by Vitaly Khlopin (ru). Under the guidance and direct participation of Igor Kurchatov, Lev Mysovskii and Gamow, Europe’s first cyclotron was designed.

By 1928, Gamow in Goettingen had solved the theory of the alpha decay of a nucleus via tunnelling (Ronald W. Gurney and Edward U. Condon[8][9] did not, however, achieve his quantitative results). Classically, the particle is confined to the nucleus because of the high energy requirement to escape the very strong nuclear potential well. Also classically, it takes an enormous amount of energy to pull apart the nucleus, an event that would not occur spontaneously. In quantum mechanics, however, there is a probability the particle can «tunnel through» the wall of the potential well and escape. Gamow solved a model potential for the nucleus and derived from first principles a relationship between the half-life of the alpha-decay event process and the energy of the emission, which had been previously discovered empirically and was known as the Geiger–Nuttall law.[10]Some years later, the name Gamow factor or Gamow–Sommerfeld factor was applied to the probability of incoming nuclear particles tunnelling through the electrostatic Coulomb barrier and undergoing nuclear reactions.
He became a professor at George Washington University (GWU) in 1934 and recruited physicist Edward Teller from London to join him at GWU. In 1936, Gamow and Teller published what became known as the «Gamow–Teller selection rule» for beta decay. During his time in Washington, Gamow would also publish major scientific papers with Mário Schoenberg and Ralph Alpher. By the late 1930s, Gamow’s interests had turned towards astrophysics and cosmology.

In 1935, Gamow’s son, Igor Gamow was born. George Gamow became a naturalized American in 1940.

Gamow was interested in the processes of stellar evolution and the early history of the Solar System. In 1945, he co-authored a paper supporting work by German theoretical physicist Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker on planetary formation in the early Solar System.[12] Gamow published another paper in the British journal Nature in 1948, in which he developed equations for the mass and radius of a primordial galaxy (which typically contains about one hundred billion stars, each with a mass comparable with that of the Sun).

Gamow led the development of the hot «big bang» theory of the expanding universe. He was the earliest to employ Alexander Friedmann‘s and Georges Lemaître‘s non-static solutions of Einstein’s gravitational equations describing a universe of uniform matter density and constant spatial curvature. Gamow’s crucial advance would provide a physical reification of Lemaître’s idea of a unique primordial quantum. Gamow did this by assuming that the early universe was dominated by radiation rather than by matter.[13] Most of the later work in cosmology is founded in Gamow’s theory. He applied his model to the question of the creation of the chemical elements [14] and to the subsequent condensation of matter into galaxies,[15] whose mass and diameter he was able to calculate in terms of the fundamental physical parameters, such as the speed of light c, Newton’s gravitational constant G, Sommerfeld’s fine-structure constant α, and Planck’s constant h.

Gamow’s interest in cosmology arose from his earlier interest in energy generation and element production and transformation in stars.[16][17][18] This work, in turn, evolved from his fundamental discovery of quantum tunneling as the mechanism of nuclear alpha decay, and his application of this theory to the inverse process to calculate rates of thermonuclear reaction.

At first, Gamow believed that all the elements might be produced in the very high temperature and density early stage of the universe. Later, he revised this opinion on the strength of compelling evidence advanced by Fred Hoyle et al. that elements heavier than lithium are largely produced in thermonuclear reactions in stars and in supernovae. Gamow formulated a set of coupled differential equations describing his proposed process and assigned, as a PhD. dissertation topic, his graduate student Ralph Alpher the task of solving the equations numerically. These results of Gamow and Alpher appeared in 1948 as the αβγ paper (on which Hans Bethe’s name also appears.[19] Bethe later referred to this paper as being «wrong».[20]

Before his interest turned to the question of the genetic code, Gamow published about twenty papers on cosmology. The earliest was in 1939 with Edward Teller on galaxy formation,[21] followed in 1946 by the first description of cosmic nucleosynthesis. He also wrote many popular articles as well as academic textbooks.[22]

In 1948 he published a paper dealing with an attenuated version of the coupled set of equations describing the production of the proton and the deuteron from thermal neutrons. By means of a simplification and using the observed ratio of hydrogen to heavier elements he was able to obtain the density of matter at the onset of nucleosynthesis and from this the mass and diameter of the early galaxies.[23] In 1953 he produced similar results, but this time based on another determination of the density of matter and radiation at the point at which they became equal.[24] In this paper Gamow determined the density of the relict background radiation from which a present temperature of 7K is trivially predicted – a value slightly more than twice the presently accepted value. In 1967 he published a reminder and recapitulation of his own work as well as that of Alpher and Robert Herman (both with Gamow and also independently of him).[25] This was prompted by the discovery of the cosmic background radiation by Penzias and Wilson in 1965, for which Gamow, Alpher and Herman felt that they did not receive the credit they deserved for their prediction of its existence and source. Gamow was disconcerted by the fact that the authors of a communication[26] explaining the significance of the Penzias/Wilson observations failed to recognize and cite the previous work of Gamow and his collaborators.

After the discovery of the structure of DNA in 1953 by Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, Gamow attempted to solve the problem of how the order of the four different kinds of bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine) in DNA chains could control the synthesis of proteins from amino acids.[27] Crick has said[28] that Gamow’s suggestions helped him in his own thinking about the problem. As related by Crick,[29] Gamow suggested that the twenty combinations[30] of four DNA bases taken three at a time corresponded to the twenty amino acids that form proteins. This led Crick and Watson to enumerate the twenty amino acids common to proteins. Gamow’s contribution to solving the problem of genetic coding gave rise to important models of biological degeneracy.[31][32]

The specific system proposed by Gamow (known as «Gamow’s diamonds») was incorrect, as the triplets were supposed to be overlapping, so that in the sequence GGAC (for example), GGA could produce one amino acid and GAC another, and also non-degenerate (meaning that each amino acid would correspond to one combination of three bases – in any order). Later protein sequencing work proved that this could not be the case; the true genetic code is non-overlapping and degenerate, and changing the order of a combination of bases does change the amino acid.

In 1954, Gamow and Watson co-founded the RNA Tie Club, a discussion group of leading scientists concerned with the problem of the genetic code. In his own autobiographical writings, Watson later acknowledged Gamow’s ideas and colorful personality as a «zany», card-trick playing, limerick-singing, booze-swilling, practical–joking «giant imp».[33]

In 1956, he was awarded the Kalinga Prize by UNESCO for his work in popularizing science with his Mr. Tompkins… series of books (1939–1967), his book One, Two, Three…Infinity, and other works. He moved to the University of Colorado Boulder, divorced his first wife and  married Barbara Perkins (an editor for one of his publishers) in 1958.

Before his death, Gamow was working with Richard Blade on a textbook Basic Theories in Modern Physics, but the work was never completed or published under that title. Gamow was also writing My World Line: An Informal Autobiography, which was published posthumously in 1970.

After several months of ill health, surgeries on his circulatory system, diabetes and liver problems, Gamow was dying from liver failure, which he had called the «weak link» that could not withstand the other stresses. In a letter written to Ralph Alpher on August 18, he had written, «The pain in the abdomen is unbearable and does not stop». Prior to this, there had been a long exchange of letters with his former student, in which he was seeking a fresh understanding of some concepts used in his earlier work, with Paul Dirac. On August 19, 1968, Gamow died at age 64 in Boulder, Colorado and was buried there in Green Mountain Cemetery. The physics department tower at the University of Colorado at Boulder is named for him. A collection of Gamow’s writings was donated to The George Washington University in 1996. The materials include correspondence, articles, manuscripts and printed materials both by and about George Gamow, in Gelman Library.[38]

  • Mr Tompkins in Wonderland (1940) Originally published in serial form in Discovery magazine (UK) in 1938. Explores the Atom (1945) Learns the Facts of Life (1953), about biology
  • Mr Tompkins in Paperback (1965), combines Mr Tompkins in Wonderland with Mr Tompkins Explores the Atom, Cambridge University Press, 1993 Canto edition with foreword by Roger Penrose
  • Mr. Tompkins Inside Himself (1967), A rewritten version of Mr Tompkins Learns the Facts of Life giving a broader view of biology, including recent developments in molecular biology. Coauthored by M. Ycas.
  • The New World of Mr Tompkins (1999), coauthor Russell Stannard updated Mr Tompkins in Paperback (ISBN 9780521630092 is a hardcover)

Science textbooks

  • The Constitution of Atomic Nuclei and Radioactivity (1931)
  • Structure of Atomic Nuclei and Nuclear Transformations (1937)
  • Atomic Energy in Cosmic and Human Life (1947)
  • Theory of Atomic Nucleus and Nuclear Energy Sources (1949) coauthor C. L. Critchfield
  • The Creation of the Universe (1952)
  • Matter, Earth and Sky (1958)
  • Physics: Foundations & Frontiers (1960) coauthor John M. Cleveland
  • The Atom and its Nucleus (1961)
  • Mr. Tompkins Gets Serious: The Essential George Gamow (2005). edited by Robert Oerter, Pi Press, ISBN 0-13-187291-5. Incorporates material from Matter, Earth, and Sky and The Atom and Its Nucleus. Notwithstanding the title, this book is not part of the Mr. Tompkins series.
  • Gamow was the inspiration for Professor Gamma in the Professor Gamma series of science fiction books by Geoffrey Hoyle and his father astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle.
  • See also  Urca process  Ylem