Nobel Table — fields and Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

Изменено: 10.10.2019 Posted on

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (1901-2019)

Neurobiology (1906*-32-36*-44-49-57*-63-70-77-81-91-2000*-c12

Golgi & Ramón y Cajal (1906) structure of the nervous system

Sherrington & Adrian (1932) functions of neurones

Dale & Loewi(1936) chemical transmission of the nerve impulses

Erlanger & Gasser(1944) highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres   Hess (1949) functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs

Bovet (1957) synthetic compounds acting on the vascular system and skeletal muscles (curare)

EcclesHodgkin & Huxley (1963) mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane n nKatzvon Euler & Axelrod (1970) neurotransmittors and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation (the concept of synaptic transmission)

Guillemin & Schally (1977) peptide hormone production in the brain Yalow    radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones

Sperry (1981) functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres

Neher & Sakmann (1991) function of single ion channels

CarlssonGreengard & Kandel (2000)* signal transduction in the nervous system«discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system» 2014 O’KeefeMay-Britt +E. Moser «cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain»

=Sensory Physiology (1911-14-61-67-81- 2004*)

Gullstrand (1911) dioptrics of the eye

Bárány (1914) physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus

Developmental Biology (35-95-2002-)

Spemann (1935)

organiser effect in embryonic development

SurgeryMoniz (1949) therapeutic leucotomy in certain psychoses

von Békésy (1961) physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea

GranitHartline & Wald (1967) primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye

Behavioral Sciences (1973) von FrischLorenz & Tinbergen  organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns

Hubel & Wiesel(1981) information processing in the visual system

Murray & Thomas (1990)* organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease

LewisNüsslein-Volhard & Wieschaus (1995)

genetic control of early embryonic development

 2002  Sydney BrennerH. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'»

 2004  Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck2010  Edwards «in vitro fertilization»

Intermediary Metabolism (1922-V*-31-37-47-53-55-64-82-85-92-94*=ch2012

Meyerhof (1922) oxygen consumption and the metabolism of lactic acid + Hill heat production in muscle

Vitamins (1929-* 34*-43-

(1929) Eijkman antineuritic vitamin Hopkins growth-stimulating vitamin

Warburg (1931) nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme

WhippleMinot & Murphy (1934)* liver therapy in cases of anaemia

von Szent-Györgyi (1937)* the catalysis of fumaric acid  + vitamin C

Dam (1943) vitamin K

Doisy chemical nature of vitamin K

Cori & Cori (1947) catalytic conversion of glycogen

Krebs (1953) citric acid cycle Lipmann (1953)

coenzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism

Theorell (1955) nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes

Bloch & Lynen(1964) cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism

BergströmSamuelsson & Vane (1982) prostaglandins and related biologically active substances

Brown & Goldstein (1985) regulation of cholesterol metabolism

Fischer & Krebs(1992) reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism

Gilman & Rodbell(1994)* G-proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells

Digestion, Circulation and Respiration (04-20-38-

Pavlov (1904)  physiology of digestion (conditioned reflexes)

Krogh (1920) capillary motor regulating mechanism

Diagnostic Methods (24*-56*-79-*2003)

 Einthoven (1924) electrocardiography

Heymans (1938) role of sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration

CournandForssmann & Richards (1956) *heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system

Cormack & Hounsfield (1979)  2003  Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield » magnetic resonance imaging»-computer tomography

Cell Biology (74-86-99-2013+16+17)

Claudede DuvePalade (1974) structural and functional organisation of the cell

Cohen & Levi-Montalcini (1986) growth factors

Blobel (1999) proteins intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localisation in the cell2001  Leland H. HartwellTim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse «discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle»

2013 Rothman,   Schekman  and  Südhof «machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells»

2016  Ohsumi«mechanisms for autophagy»

2017 (see Advanced Information Jeffrey C. Hall Michael Rosbash Michael W. Young  for molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm (гл.7. Гамова- Часы идут, Кембридж циркадные ритмы, биочасы)

William G. Kaelin JrSir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza «как клетки чувствуют и адаптируются к доступности кислорода”

Kossel (1910)*pr. nucleic substance

Classical Genetics (33-46-83)

Morgan (1933) role of chromosomes in heredity

Muller (1946) mutations by X-ray irradiation

Molecular Biology/Genetics(1958-59-62-65—68-69-78- *93

Beadle & Tatum (gen) regulation of definite chemical events (one gene-one protein)  Lederberg (1958) genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material in bacteria    Ochoa & Kornberg (1959) bio-synthesis of ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acid

CrickWatson & Wilkins (1962) molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material

JacobLwoff & Monod (1965) genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis

HolleyKhoranaNirenberg(1968) genetic code and its function in protein synthesis  DelbrückHershey & Luria(1969) the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses

ArberNathans & Smith (1978) restriction enzymes and molecular genetics

McClintock (1983) mobile genetic elements  Roberts & Sharp(1993) 2006  Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello«discovery of RNA interference — gene silencing by double-stranded RNA»2007  Mario R. CapecchiSir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies«introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells» 2009 Elizabeth BlackburnC. Greider and Szostak «how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase»2012 Sir John B. Gurdon and Yamanaka «mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent»

T- Therapy and Treatment (1903-27-*

Finsen (1903) light therapy of lupus

Hormones (1909-23-47-50-71-98-*)

Kocher (1909) physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland

Banting & Macleod (1923) insulin

Wagner-Jauregg(1927) fever treatment of general paralysis

Chemotherapy/Drug Development

Domagk (1939)  prontosil (sulphonamides)

FlemingChain & Florey (1945) penicillin

Houssay (1947) hormones of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar

KendallReichstein & Hench (1950) hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects

Waksman (1952) streptomycin, the first antibiotic against tuberculosis

Bovet (1957) substances that mimic the effects of adrenaline + paralyse skeletal muscle

Sutherland, Jr.(1971) mechanism of action of hormones

BlackElion & Hitchings (1988) principles for drug treatment FurchgottIgnarro & Murad(1998) nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system


 2015  Campbell +Ōmura «therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites»Youyou Tu«therapy against Malaria»

Cancer (1926-66-75-89-2008-2018)

Fibiger (1926) spiroptera carcinoma illustrating cancer caused by chronic irritation

Rous (1966)* tumour-inducing virus in chickens Huggins (1966) hormonal treatment of prostate cancer

BaltimoreDulbecco & Temin (1975)

interaction between tumour virus and host cell

Bishop & Varmus(1989) retroviral oncogenes =2008

2018 James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo «cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.» — landmark in our fight 2018-see  J.P.AllisonT.Honjo (Хондзё)

Immunology (1901-08-13-19-30-60-72-80-84-87-96-2011-) Behring (1901) serum therapy and its application against diphtheria

Ehrlich (1908) immunity Mechnikov (1908) phagocytosis

Richet (1913) anaphylaxisBordet (1919) antigens and antibodies in immune reactions

Landsteiner(1930) blood groups and blood typing

Burnet & Medawar (1960) acquired immunological tolerance

Edelman & Porter (1972) structure of antibodies

BenacerrafDausset & Snell(1980) regulation of immune reactions

JerneKöhler & Milstein (1984) control of the immune system and monoclonal antibodies

Tonegawa (1987) genetics of antibody formation  Doherty & Zinkernagel(1996) cell mediated immunity    2011 Beutler J/Hoffmann«activation of innate immunity»R. Steinman«dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity»

Infectious Agents and Insecticides Ross (1902) role of insects as vectors in the infectious cycle (malaria) Koch (1905) identification of the tubercle bacillus and other work on tuberculosis

Laveran (1907) role of protozoa in causing disease (malaria)

Nicolle (1928) role of clothes lice in the transmission of typhus

Müller (1948) DDT as an insecticide   Theiler (1951) yellow fever virus  EndersWeller & Robbins (1954) in vitro culture of polio virus

Blumberg & Gajdusek (1976) new …origin and dissemination of infectious disease

Prusiner (1997) prions, a new principle of infection 2005 Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren «discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease»2008 Hausen«human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer» HIV  F/ Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier «discovery of human immunodeficiency virus»

Prognoz 2019: 1- CRISPR 2- Bert Vogelstein  Professor of Oncology and Pathology with a Joint Appointment in Molecular Biology and Genetics, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator, with Thomson Reuters — Citation Laureates 2017 — Lewis C. Cantley For discovery of the signaling pathway phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and elucidation of its role in tumor growth

Nobel Prize recipients are indicated by the year of their award

Shizuo Akira

Professor, Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for
Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

David Allis

Tri-Institutional Professor and Joy and Jack Fishman Professor, Head,
Laboratory of Chromatin Biology and Epigenetics, Rockefeller University,

James P. Allison

Professor and Chair, Department of Immunology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX USA

Victor R. Ambros

Professor, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of
Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA USA

Michael J. Berridge

Deputy Scientific Director and Head, Molecular Signaling, The
Babraham Institute, Babraham, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Honorary
Professor of Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge,
United Kingdom — 2002 — «Thomson Reuters»  свой список  Нобелевской премии по медицине

A. Beutler

Professor and Chairman, Department of Genetics, The Scripps Research
Institute, La Jolla, CA USA

Adrian P. Bird

Buchanan Professor of Genetics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh,
Scotland United Kingdom

Elizabeth H. Blackburn 2009

Morris Herztein Professor of Biology and Physiology, University of
California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

Jeffrey A. Bluestone

A.W. and Mary Margaret Clausen Distinguished Professor of Metabolism and Endocrinology, University of California San Francisco Medical School, San Francisco, CA USA

R. Capecchi

Distinguished Professor of Biology and Human Genetics and
Co-Chairman, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah,
Salt Lake City, UT; and Howard Hughes Medical Investigator

Howard Cedar

Edmond J. Safra Distinguished Professor Emeritus, Hebrew University
of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel

Pierre Chambon

Former Director, Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular
Biology, Universitat Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France; and Professor,
College de France, Paris, France.

Robert L. Coffman

Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer, Dynavax Technologies,
Berkeley, CA USA

Douglas L. Coleman

Senior Staff Scientist Emeritus, Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME

Francis S. Collins

Director, National Human Genome Research Institute, Senior
Investigator, Genome Technology Branch, National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Md.


Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology and Co-Director of
the Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

E. Darnell, Jr.

Vincent Astor Professor Emeritus, Laboratory of Molecular Cell
Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY USA

J. Druker

JELD-WEN Chair of Leukemia Research, and Director, OHSU Knight Cancer
Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland OR USA

John Ellis

Professor, Emeritus, Department of Biological Sciences, University of
Warwick, Warwick, UK.

Ronald M. Evans

Professor and March of Dimes Chair in Molecular and Developmental
Biology Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA; and
Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator

Martin Evans

Director of the School of Biosciences and Professor of Mammalian
Genetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK

Gordon J. Freeman

Professor, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA

Jeffrey M. Friedman

Marilyn M. Simpson Professor, Laboratory of Molecular Genetics,
Rockefeller University, New York, NY USA, and Investigator, Howard
Hughes Medical Institute

H. Gage

Professor, Laboratory of Genetics, Salk Institute for Biological
Studies, La Jolla, CA, USA

Jeffrey I. Gordon

Dr. Robert J. Glaser Distinguished University Professor and Director
of the Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington
University School of Medicine. St. Louis, MO, USA

W. Greider

Daniel Nathans Professor and Director, Department of Molecular
Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD,

Michael Grunstein

Distinguished Professor of Biological Chemistry, Geffen School of
Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA USA

Michael N. Hall

Professor Biozentrum, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Ulrich Hartl

Managing Director, Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Department
of Cellular Biochemistry, Martinsried, Germany

A. Hoffmann

President, French Academy of Sciences, Paris, France

Tasuku Honjo

Visiting Professor, Kyoto University,
Kyoto, JAPAN

Arthur Horwich

Eugene Higgins Professor of Genetics and Pediatrics at Yale
University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Howard Hughes

Anthony “Tony” R. Hunter

American Cancer Society Professor, Molecular and Cell Biology
Laboratory, and Renato Dulbecco Chair, Salk Institute for Biological
Studies, and Adjunct Professor, Section of Molecular Biology, University
of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA USA

Richard O. Hynes

Daniel K. Ludwig Professor for Cancer Research, David O. Koch
Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of
Technology, Cambridge, MA USA; also Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Alec J. Jefferys

Professor, Department of Genetics, University of Leicester,
Leicester, UK

 Elwood V. Jensen

John and Gladys Strauss Professor of Cancer Research, Vontz Center
for Molecular Studies, University of Cincinnati Medical Center,
Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Charles Huggins Distinguished Service Professor
Emeritus, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA


Morris Herzstein Chair in Molecular Biology and Medicine, Professor
and Chair of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, San
Francisco, CA USA

Daniel J. Klionsky

Alexander G. Ruthven Professor of Life Sciences, University of
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

 Alfred G. Knudson Jr.

Senior Advisor to the President and Fox Distinguished Scientist, Fox
Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pa.

S. Lander

President and founding director of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Mass

Robert S. Langer

David H. Koch Institute Professor, Department of Chemical
Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA

Charles Lee

Professor and Scientific Director, Jackson Laboratory for Genomic
Medicine, Farmington, CT USA

Nicholas B. Lydon

Founder, Granite Biopharma, LLC, Jackson Hole, WY USA; Co-founder and
Director, AnaptysBio, San Diego, CA USA; and Co-founder and Director,
Blueprint Medicines, Cambridge, MA USA


Chairman of Cell Biology Program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer
Center, New York, NY, USA; Professor, Weill-Cornell University Graduate
School of Medical Sciences, New York, NY, USA; Howard Hughes

 Ernest A. McCulloch

Senior Scientist, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario,

Jacques F. A. P. Miller

Emeritus Professor, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical
Research and the University of Melbourne, Parkville, Melbourne,

Noboru Mizushima

Professor, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and
Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Kazutoshi Mori

Professor, Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science,
Kyoto University, Kyoto, JAPAN

Timothy R. Mosmann

Professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Michael and
Angela Pichichero Director in the David H. Smith Center for Vaccine
Biology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center,
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY USA

 Yasutomi Nishizuka

President Emeritus of Kobe University, Former Professor and Chairman,
Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kobe University, Kobe,


Director, formerly with Ogawa Laboratories for Brain Function
Research, Hamano Life Science Research Foundation, Tokyo, Japan (closed
in March 2008)

Yoshinori Ohsumi2016

Professor, Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology,
Yokohama, Japan

 Anthony “Tony” J. Pawson

Distinguished Scientist and Apotex Chair in Molecular Oncology,
Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital, and
Professor, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Toronto,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Richard Peto

FRS, Professor of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology and Co-Director
of the Clinical Trial Service Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Aharon Razin

Professor Biochemistry Emeritus, Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
Jerusalem, Israel

Robert G. Roeder

Arnold and Mabel Beckman Professor, Laboratory of Biochemistry and
Molecular Biology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY USA

E. Rothman

Wallace Professor of Biomedical Sciences, Professor and Chairman of
Cell Biology, Professor of Chemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT,

Alexander Y. Rudensky

Chairman, Immunology Program; Director, Ludwig Center for Cancer
Immunotherapy; Tri-Institutional Professor at Memorial Sloan Kettering
Cancer Center, The Rockefeller University and Cornell University;
Professor, Gerstner Sloan-Kettering Graduate School; Professor, Weill
Graduate School of Medical Sciences of Cornell University; Investigator,
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, New York, NY, USA


Distinguished Professor, Center for Nanomedicine, Sanford-Burnham
Medical Research Institute, La Jolla, CA USA


Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Massachusetts
General Hospital, both Boston, MA USA

David M. Sabatini

Whitehead Institute, Member; Professor of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute; Member, Koch Institute for Integrative Research; Senior Associate Member, Broad Institute, Cambridge, MA USA

Shimon Sakaguchi

Distinguished Professor, World Premier International Research Center,
Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, JAPAN

Charles L. Sawyers

Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Chair in Human Oncology and
Pathogenesis, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY USA.
Also, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator


Professor of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California
Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA; also, Howard Hughes Medical Institute

Stephen W. Scherer

Senior Scientist and Director, The Centre for Applied Genomics, The
Hospital for Sick Children; Professor and Director, McLaughlin Centre,
University of Toronto, Toronto, ON CANADA

Stuart L. Schreiber

Director of Chemical Biology, Broad Institute, Morris Loeb Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University; Investigator, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cambridge, MA USA

Arlene H. Sharpe

George Fabyan Professor of Comparative Pathology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School and Member, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA USA

M. Shevach

Chief, Cellular Immunology Section, National Institutes of Health,
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD,

Dennis J. Slamon

Professor, Chief, and Executive Vice Chair for Research, Department
of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, and Director of Revlon/UCLA Women’s
Cancer Research Program, University of California Los Angeles, Los
Angeles, California USA

Oliver Smithies 2007

Excellence Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory
Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill,

M. Steinman

Henry G. Kunkel Professor and Senior Physician, Laboratory of
Cellular Physiology and Immunology, Rockefeller University, New York, NY

W. Szostak

Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, and Alexander Rich
Distinguished Investigator at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston,
MA, USA; also, Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator

Masatoshi Takeichi

Director, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, Kobe, Japan

Craig B. Thompson

President and CEO, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY USA

E. Till

Senior Scientist, Ontario Cancer Institute, Toronto, Ontario,

Robert Tjian

Professor of Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology,
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California
Berkeley, Berkeley, CA USA, and President, Howard Hughes Medical
Institute, Chevy Chase, MD USA

Joseph P. Vacanti

John Homans Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School;
Surgeon-in-Chief and Chief of the Department of Pediatric Surgery and
Director of the Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication,
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA USA

Craig Venter

President, The Center for Advancement of Genomics, Institute for
Biological Energy Alternatives, and Venter Science Foundation,
Rockville, Md


Professor of Oncology and Pathology with a Joint Appointment in
Molecular Biology and Genetics, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer
Center at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., Howard Hughes
Medical Institute Investigator


Professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator,

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine,
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

Robert A. Weinberg

Daniel K. Ludwig and American Cancer Society Professor for Cancer
Research MIT, Cambridge, Mass., Member, Whitehead Institute, Cambridge,

Michael H. Wigler

Professor and Head, Mammalian Cell Genetics Section, Cold Spring
Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY USA

Shinya Yamanaka 2012

Director, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application and Professor,
Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto
University, Kyoto, Japan; Senior Investigator, Gladstone Institute of
Cardiovascular Disease, San Francisco, CA USA; and Professor of Anatomy,
University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA USA

Lewis C. Cantley

Meyer Director of the Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center and Professor of Cancer Biology in Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA

Karl J. Friston

Professor of Imaging Neuroscience and Wellcome Principal Research Fellow, Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging, University College London, London, UK

Yuan Chang

American Cancer Society Research Professor, Distinguished Professor of Pathology, and UPMC Endowed Chair in Cancer Virology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Patrick S. Moore

Director of the Cancer Virology Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, American Cancer Society Research Professor, Distinguished Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics and the Pittsburgh Foundation Chair in Innovative Cancer Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA