students (Iran, ar.+) study

Изменено: 16.07.2019 Posted on
 call +375299214442 (or 5450318). Write to my address:  usednev@yandex.ru
How did you pass the exams and where else do you think you should go?

Elements: See «Навстречу стихии«НО NewScientist.. произвел самую прибыльную индустрию в мире, где 40% маржи больше нефти и финансов,ЧИТАТЬ,  Боинг Боинг:В + здесь:

Who goes where to go to universities?

Now we propose to make a «third Cambridge» (1-пустил онлайн-курс, ректор ВШЭ Кузьминов Ник.Вяххи Stepik44. Геймификация- Coursera, Kidaptive мультигры, MS- Minecraft…,

 – стадо бегущих над белорусским стадионом «Динамо» бизонов AR-шоу Европейских игр, раньше такого никто не делал.

адаптивные CogBooks, от истории до микробиологии,  Watson ( http://www.lavoisier.fr, http://www.wiley-vch.de, http://www.zanichelli.it, http://www.newtonpress.co.jp/cell4/, http://www.grupoa.com.br  (5 изд.2008 — М., 2013), http://www.ediciones-omega.es  1a-  the changes of the last (2014-2002 = 12 years) editions — the replacement of biosynthesis by energy and genomes, having moved Gen.Mechanisms in II (<- IV), reflect the hopes of sequencing projects, «Human Genome», etc., multiplying information on them, Not  justified.

e.g.

Gravity as a common cause of development of eukaryotes, animal evolution and human anatomy
The person and his anatomy differs from animals mainly due to the vertical orientation. It is associated with gravitational differentiation and separation of systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive (gastrointestinal tract), starting with three tubes of development…

It begins with gastrulation, pulsation and neurulation, three tubes in the development of the embryo.
Vertebrates are characterized by an ever greater separation of the head from the rest of the body, due to the development of lungs in terrestrial tetrapods. Mammals differ from other classes of diaphragm between the chest and head. The main classes of animals are divided into primary and secondary mammals with vertebrates, beginning with St. Hilaire, explained as «inverted invertebrates». This was proved by modern molecular biology and genetics, showing the general genes of their development

Try to translate better, maybe with friends, for collaborative articles
>
> Gravity is the common cause of development of diversity of our world (see Textbook of Biology — 1), from eukaryotic cells and animal evolution to human anatomy and orientation (2).
>>  The humans and our anatomy differs from animals mainly due to the vertical orientation, in tradition “from Earth to Heaven”. It is associated with gravitational differentiation and separation of systems such as the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive (gastrointestinal tract), starting with three tubes of development…It begins with gastrulation, pulsation and neurulation, three tubes in the development of the embryo.
>>  Development of vertebrates separate the head from the rest of the body, with the development of lungs in terrestrial tetrapods. Mammals differ from other classes of diaphragm between the chest breast with heart and abdomen, the ventral part. The major distinctions between deuterostomes and protostomes are found in embryonic development. The main classes of animals are divided into proto- and deuterostomy with vertebrates, explained as «inverted invertebrates» beginning with Sent-Hilaire (1822) — Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772 –1844) noted that the organization of dorsal and ventral structures in arthropods is opposite that of mammals. The inversion hypothesis was met with criticism and was rejected, however, modern molecular embryologists have since resurrected this idea.[8] This was proved by modern molecular biology and genetics, showing the general genes of their development.
>>  Our hypothesis is that development is ultimately determined by balancing these electrochemical forces with gravity, with the differentiation of them parts in the development, onto-oncological and phylogeny, where division and multicellular coup primary deuterostome after the Cambrian, 500 million years ago, It could be repeated more fundamental division within the cell eukaryotic pro-Planck mass. The development of each level, prokaryotic, eukaryotic unicellular and multicellular could occupy the same time and similar periods of evolution, with the division of electro-chemical and «heavy» parts. If the current program combining physical interactions (standard model) is correct, they indicate the magnitude of association of electrical, weak and strong interactions at 1016 GeV and gravity at 1019 GeV — about 10-8 and 10-5 g, the ordinary masses of pro- and eukaryotic cells prokaryotic, biogenesis. (Balancing gravity Planck E = hv = hc / λ = GmM / r = kqQ / r defines the main fine structure constant α = ke2 / hc ~ 1/137 — charge and mass √hc / G ~ 2.10-5 g, relations of attraction mass and charge p + e 1040 ~ 2137, is naturally explained by dividing 2n.

>>  Abdus Salam, a Muslim, in his 1979 Nobel lecture on the theory of combining physical interactions (electro-weak and perspective — the prospects of a unified theory, UT) and in other articles he linked the symmetry breaking in physics and biology
>>
>>  The path from molecular genetics to cells and development, the concept of studying and using plant biodiversity.
>>  Summary. Molecular biology and genetics (Watson, Vogelstein etc.) represent a new paradigm of priority of cells, redox biochemistry and disease as diabetes and cancer. However, the following analysis of the factors of their choice and division requires the study and can put an end to «radical chemo», theory and practice, with a new concept of traditional medicine and herbal remedies. Example — natural cycles of tetrapirroles, a bil’in as phytochrome, drugs and poisons of plants, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic agents such as metformin, AMPK and mTOR that control the cell cycle and the choice of direction between the division, growth and preservation, autophagy, aging and death of cells.
>>  It may be referrences and
>>  inviting everybody for a research proposal under Joint Research Program
>>
>>  papers relate to quantitative description of cancer, influence of metabolism and the overall understanding the nature of cancer and cancer treatment:
>>
>>  we could propose some new approaches. For example,
>>  J. Watson. Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers. Open Biol. 2013, 3 (1), 120144.
>>  http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/120144
>>  correlation with the number of the stem cells and cell divisions – the ideas of Bert Vogelstein (2015, 2017):
>>  Cristian Tomasetti, Bert Vogelstein. Cancer etiology. Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions. Science. 2015, 347. P. 78–81.
>>  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6217/78.full?sid=1e3d635c-dc0e-48dd-b976-5795fa66f1b9
>>
>>  Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention. C.Tomasetti, L. Li, B. Vogelstein, Science, 2017, 355, P. 1330-1334.
>>
>>  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6331/1330
>>
>>  We could also consider metabolic factors like red-ox processes which contribute substantially to energetic and entropy factors:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_system
>>  The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism. The respiratory system is involved in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between an organism and the environment. The passage of air into the organs to supply the body with oxygen is known as inhalation, and the passage of air out of the lungs to expel carbon dioxide is known as exhalation; this process is collectively called breathing or ventilation.
>>  Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals. The respiratory system in plants also includes anatomical features such as holes on the undersides of leaves known as stomata.[2] In fish and many invertebrates, respiration takes place through the gills.
>>
>>  прилагаю нашу статью по симметрии тел и гравитации, с нарушениями, гипотезу через кривизну полостей-органогенез и дыхательно-плавательные пузыри (решая, например, загадку Мг и состава воздуха- азота- больше 3% только на Земле и Титане, как объяснить?), от массы Планка как отражаемой в массе клетки, эукариот- см.англ.текст. Т.к. она не зависит от физ-хим-био-факторов, в т.ч. разных планет и периодов, то все они должны компенсироваться подобно физическим компенсирующим полям (град.инвариантности) и представлять топологию мембран эукариот в отличии от прокариот как отражающих объединение (ЕТ) без гравитации, 10-8г=10+16 Гэв. Поэтому гравитация м.б. связана с объединением электро-слабых и сильных взаимодействий как эу-кариоты с про-кариотами- поглощая их, через топологию с изменением кривизны-эндосомы и ретикулум с ред-окс преобразованием носителей информации-памяти-времени- РНК в ДНК.
>>  Гравитация уравновешивается ростом числом возможностей или энтропии типа испарения — и как вода испаряется и поднимается против силы тяжести, так и человек встает, чтобы увеличить число возможностей и свободы рук и чувств, зрения и др.
>>  У меня идея, что жизнь представляет сопряжение энтропии, подчиняя энтропии частей (по ЛеШателье) росту для своих целей, болезнь нарушает это сопряжение, онко- «тяжесть» означает разнонаправленность и противоречие целей-энтропии клетки и организма. Но от химии к жизни нужен переход- увеличение энтропии через катализ. Я развивал концепцию, что соединение с катализатором дает энергию для разрыва связей субстрата, а энергия связей продукта используется для его освобождения — разрыва связи с катализатором,
>>  м.б. подобно испарению и физ-мат можно представить типа матрицы
>>  приложу Гравитацию как определяющую организмы силу, что доложили вчера на студ.конфер в БГПУ и статью со ссылками последнюю, чтоб были в курсе
>>
>>  —
>
> uri sednev
> +375299214442
> 5450318

Abdus Salam, a Muslim, in his 1979 Nobel lecture on the theory of combining physical interactions (electro-weak and perspective — the prospects of a unified theory, UT) and in other articles he linked the symmetry breaking in physics and biology

The path from molecular genetics to cells and development, the concept of studying and using plant biodiversity.
Summary. Molecular biology and genetics (Watson, Vogelstein etc.) represent a new paradigm of priority of cells, redox biochemistry and disease as diabetes and cancer. However, the following analysis of the factors of their choice and division requires the study and can put an end to «radical chemo», theory and practice, with a new concept of traditional medicine and herbal remedies. Example — natural cycles of tetrapirroles, a bil’in as phytochrome, drugs and poisons of plants, anti-cancer and anti-diabetic agents such as metformin, AMPK and mTOR that control the cell cycle and the choice of direction between the division, growth and preservation, autophagy, aging and death of cells.

It may be referrences and inviting everybody for a research proposal under Joint Research Programpapers relate to quantitative description of cancer, influence of metabolism and the overall understanding the nature of cancer and cancer treatment:we could propose some new approaches. For example, J. Watson. Oxidants, antioxidants and the current incurability of metastatic cancers. Open Biol. 2013, 3 (1), 120144.http://rsob.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/3/1/120144 correlation with the number of the stem cells and cell divisions – the ideas of Bert Vogelstein (2015, 2017): Cristian Tomasetti, Bert Vogelstein. Cancer etiology. Variation in cancer risk among tissues can be explained by the number of stem cell divisions. Science. 2015, 347. P. 78–81.  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/347/6217/78.full?sid=1e3d635c-dc0e-48dd-b976-5795fa66f1b9  Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention.

We could also consider metabolic factors like red-ox processes which contribute substantially to energetic and entropy factors:

Yours sincerely, Yuri Sednev, and Dr. Vitaly Kovalenko,  The Laboratory of biochemistry and biotechnology, Belarusian state pedagogical university

Nature — Elbakyan ( Sci-Hub  Kazakhstani graduate student,[2] computer programmer and the creator of the site Sci-Hub, AlphaGo — LIGO Russianопубликовал Гильем Англада-Эскуде и др

EXAMs in BSMU — Example — Chemistry (2017/16- Variant 5, 3, see \>)

Название элемента циркония происходит от персидского слова «заргун» — название золотисто-жёлтого камня, известного с античных времен как «циркон» — ортосиликата циркония ZrSiO4. известны и сероватые, и розовые, и красные, и бесцветные формы. В средние века интенсивно преломлявшие свет бесцветные кристаллы циркона ошибочно принимали за отличающиеся меньшей твёрдостью «алмазы второго сорта», украшали ими ювелирные изделия и даже властные регалии.  1789  немецкий химик Мартин Клапрот проанализировал элемент и назвал минерал и Металл, получен спустя 35 лет Йенсом Берцелиусом. В наши дни фианиты и циркониты также применяются в ювелирном деле — их коэффициент преломления выше, чем у алмазов, и они блестят лучше обычных алмазов. От алмазов кубический диоксид циркония отличается меньшей твердостью, составляющей 8,5 единиц по шкале Мооса (у алмаза она равна 10) и большей плотностью — 6,0 г/см3 (плотность алмаза 3,52 г/см3).

-ниже…

Анастасия Вереск  Авторские статьиЖизнь   мечтал и уехал учиться в Европу.  Всего 6 часов самолетом от Тегерана до Минска, и добро пожаловать в Беларусь — страну с европейскими чистыми городами, строгими законами и плохой погодой.  рассказ Эхсана (22 года), который 5 лет жил и учил медицину в Минске, чем наши ВУЗы так привлекают иностранцев, белорусскую экзотику.  Спойлер: после 5 лет в Минске наш герой понял, что это не то, о чем он мечтал и уехал учиться в Европу.

Эхсан в Гродно. Фото из лично архива героя

в медицинский у нас идут по зову сердца, по семейной традиции или по молодости, но в Иране врач — это очень выгодная профессия.

В Персии многие реально хотят, чтобы их дети были врачами. хорошей успешной жизни. в топ-10 самых оплачиваемых профессий.  шокировало, что в Беларуси некоторые кассиры в супермаркете получают столько же, сколько врачи. И это так печально! 

Каждый год сотни тысяч студентов в Иране сдают экзамен, чтобы поступить в университет. Конкурс большой и проходят, конечно, не все. По словам Эхсана, в его год на медицину поступало около 500 000 студентов. Но все-таки, почему выбирают именно Беларусь?

Мы просто пришли с семьей в специальный офис и нам порекомендовали там несколько стран. Вообще-то, главной причиной была цена: она была ниже, чем в остальных вариантах. Кроме того, эта страна была ближе к Ирану, податься на визу в Беларусь было проще, а в университетах преподавали на английском языке. 

первый опыт самостоятельной жизни: мне было всего 18, и до этого я никогда не бывал в других странах. Другим было абсолютно все, поэтому у меня ушел месяц, чтобы привыкнуть. 

удивили наши больницы, общее состояние и забота о пациентах там далеко не на высшем уровне. Зато студентов встречают приветливые пожилые люди и милые белорусские бабушки. И если совсем коротко про практику в больнице: Наш уровень русского был не супер, но мы очень старались. он не планировал работать в Иране, так что знания и диплом были для него очень важны. Но желание учиться в Беларуси пропало вместе с первой эйфорией от самостоятельной жизни. Оказалось, что для работы в большинстве стран диплом белорусского ВУЗа придется подтверждать.   Я был 18-летним мальчиком, который получил свободу жить в другой стране и просто наслаждался жизнью. Но потом я просто сел и подумал: что я делаю со своей жизнью? Обеспечит ли мне это то будущее, которое я хочу? Есть ли гарантия, что я смогу найти себе работу в Европе? И тогда я понял, что я немного трачу свое время и жизнь попусту. Вообще, единственная причина, почему я не бросил учиться раньше — я был молодым и глупым. Сейчас, кстати, все стало еще хуже, потому что Иран сказал, что не будет признавать белорусские дипломы. 

скучать по чему-то здесь точно не будет. Лучшими воспоминаниями из Беларуси он назвал свою поездку — Мне реально понравился Гродно. Он выглядит как часть настоящей Европы, Минск с ним даже сравнить нельзя. А еще я однажды был в Дудутках: старые деревенские дома, женщины в традиционной одежде. Мне очень понравились эти культурные вещи. 

Кстати, по-белорусски Эхсан смог вспомнить только слова «Я цябе кахаю!». А еще «Дзякуй!». Однажды мне кто-то так ответил,

что рассказывает студент из Беларуси про главные отличия учебы в европейском и в нашем университете.

You can you translate in your l…(Iran for this page, study of Iranians) MolBio-Med

Part I. Introduction to the Cell Chapter 1. Cells and Genomes : The Universal Features of Cells on Earth, The Diversity of Genomes and the Tree of Life, Genetic Information in EucaryotesChapter 2. Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis : The Chemical Components of a Cell, Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells, How Cells Obtain Energy from Food

Chapter 3. Proteins: The Shape and Structure of Proteins, Protein Function

BASIC GENETIC MECHANISMS
4. DNA, Chromosomes, and Genomes
5. DNA Replication, Repair, and Recombination
6. How Cells Read the Genome: From DNA to Protein
7. Control of Gene Expression
WAYS OF WORKING WITH CELLS
8. Analyzing Cells, Molecules, and Systems
9. Visualizing Cells
INTERNAL ORGANIZATION OF THE CELL
10. Membrane Structure
11. Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the
Electrical Properties of Membranes
12. Intracellular Compartments and Protein Sorting
13. Intracellular Membrane Traffic
14. Energy Conversion: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
15. Cell Signaling
16. The Cytoskeleton
17. The Cell Cycle
18. Cell Death
CELLS IN THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXT
19. Cell Junctions and the Extracellular Matrix
20. Cancer ( Cancer cells break the most basic rules of cell behavior by which multicellular organisms are built and maintained,… cancer research helps to illuminate the fundamentals of cell biology—especially cell signaling (Chapter 15), the cell cycle and cell growth (Chapter 17), programmed cell death (apoptosis, Chapter 18), and the control of tissue architecture (Chapters 19 and 22). Of course, with a deeper understanding of these normal processes, we also gain a deeper under￾standing of the disease and better tools to treat it. … what cancer is and describe the natural history of the disease from a cellular standpoint. We then discuss the molecular changes that make a cell cancerous.
21. Development of Multicellular Organisms
22. Stem Cells and Tissue Renewal
23. Pathogens and Infection
24. The Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

2 Cell Chemistry and Bioenergetics

The Chemical Components of a Cell: Water … Hydrogen Bonds, Four Types of Noncovalent Attractions in Cells, Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water, Carbon Compounds — Four Small Organic Molecules, Macromolecules with Remarkable Properties — Noncovalent Bonds Specify Both the Precise Shape of a Macromolecule and Its Binding to Other Molecules

Catalysis and the Use of Energy by Cells : Cell Metabolism Is Organized by Enzymes, Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells, Obtained Energy by the Oxidation of Organic Molecules (Red-Ox Electron Transfers), Enzymes Lower the Activation-Energy Barriers That Block Chemical Reactions, Can Drive Substrate Molecules : Rapidity of Molecular Motions

The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction, ∆G, Determines Whether It Can Occur Spontaneously, The Concentration of Reactants Influences Reaction’s Direction, the Energetics, The Equilibrium Constant and ∆G° (The Free-Energy Changes of Coupled Reactions Are Additive, give Activated Carrier Molecules for Biosynthesis, Coupled to an Energetically Favorable Reaction : NADH and NADPH Are Important Electron Carriers, Energy Stored in ATP Is Often Harnessed to Join Two Molecules Together, drive the Synthesis of Biological Polymers,

HOW CELLS OBTAIN ENERGY FROM FOOD Amino Acids and Nucleotides Are Part of the Nitrogen Cycle. Metabolism Is Highly Organized and Regulated. Glycolysis Is a Central ATP-Producing Pathway, Fermentations Produce ATP in the Absence of Oxygen, How Enzymes Couple Oxidation to Energy Storage. Organisms Store Food Molecules in Special Reservoirs, Energy from Fatty Acids, Sugars and Fats Are Both Degraded to Acetyl CoA in Mitochondria, The Citric Acid Cycle Generates NADH by Oxidizing Acetyl Groups to CO2, Electron Transport Drives the Synthesis of the Majority of the ATP in Most Cells.

Chapter 3 Proteins THE SHAPE AND STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS  Is Specified by Its Amino Acid Sequence 109 Proteins Fold into a Conformation of Lowest Energy, The α Helix and the β Sheet, Protein Domains Are Modular Units from Which Larger Proteins Are Built, Can Be Classified into Many Families, Certain Pairs of Domains Are Found Together in Many Proteins, The Human Genome Encodes … Long Helical Filaments, Fibrous Shapes, Intrinsically Disordered Polypeptide Chain, Covalent Cross-Linkages Stabilize Extracellular Proteins, as Subunits for the Assembly of Large Structures, Self-Assembly, Assembly Factors Often Aid, Amyloid Fibrils … Functions in Cells, “Reversible Amyloids”

PROTEIN FUNCTION All Proteins Bind to Other Molecules, The Surface Conformation of a Protein Determines Its Chemistry, Ligand-Binding Sites, Interfaces : Antibody Binding Sites Are Especially Versatile. The Equilibrium Constant Measures Binding Strength, Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts, Substrate Binding Is the First Step … Speed Reactions by Selectively Stabilizing Transition States, Use Simultaneous Acid and Base Catalysis. Lysozyme Illustrates How, Tightly Bound Small Molecules Add Extra Functions, Multienzyme Complexes Help to Increase the Rate of Cell Metabolism, Regulates the Catalytic Activities, Allosteric Enzymes Binding Sites That Interact — Ligands Reciprocally Affect, Symmetric Protein Assemblies Produce Cooperative Allosteric Transitions

All the changes of the last (2014-2002 = 12 years) editions — the replacement of biosynthesis by energy and genomes, having moved Gen.Mechanisms in II (<- IV), reflect the hopes of sequencing projects, «Human Genome», etc., multiplying information on them, Not fully justified. The post-genomic era

history of cancer from its first identification 4,600 years ago by the Egyptian physician Imhotep. The Greeks had no understanding of cells, but they were familiar with hydraulics, so they used hydraulic metaphors, of humors, which were fluids whose proper balance, they believed, produced health and sickness. According to the book, cancer existed in silence in history until 440 before the Common Era, where the Greek historian Herodotus records the story of Atossa the queen of Persia and the daughter of Cyrus, who noticed a lump in her breast. The tumor was excised by her Greek slave named Demasitis, where the procedure is believed to be successful at least temporarily.

In the 19th century, surgical approaches were developed to deal with tumors. William Halsted developed an aggressive, disfiguring breast surgery as a strategy for removing not only existing cancer cells but also places to which they might have spread.

Leukemia, a cancer of blood cells, was first observed by Rudolph Virchow, and Franz Ernst Christian Neumann localized the pathology to the bone marrow. Leukemia cells are dependent on the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. Sidney Farber used molecules developed by Yellapragada Subbarow to block the enzyme and destroy the leukemia cells, producing a temporary remission in the disease.

The book proceeds right on through to the latest research and therapies.
The emperor of all maladies : a biography of cancer / Siddhartha Mukherjee.
=

2015: Persian: «سرطان امپراطور بیماری‌ها», The House of Biology (ISBN 978-600-6926-36-0).

See also[edit]Cancer (2015 PBS film)
History of cancer- he Edwin Smith Papyrus was written around 1600 BC (possibly a fragmentary copy of a text from 2500 BC) and contains a description of cancer, as well as a procedure to remove breast tumours by cauterization. It wryly observed that the disease has no treatment.[1]

Hippocrates (ca. 460 BC – ca. 370 BC) described several kinds of cancer, referring to them by the term karkinos (carcinos), the Greek word for crab or crayfish, as well as carcinoma.[2] This comes from the appearance of the cut surface of a solid malignant tumour, with «the veins stretched on all sides as the animal the crab has its feet, whence it derives its name».[3] Since it was against Greek tradition to open the body, Hippocrates only described and made drawings of outwardly visible tumors on the skin, nose, and breasts. Treatment was based on the humor theory of four bodily fluids (black and yellow bile, blood, and phlegm). According to the patient’s humor, treatment consisted of diet, blood-letting, and/or laxatives. Celsus (ca. 25 BC — 50 AD) translated karkinos into cancer, the Latin word for crab or crayfish.

In the 2nd century AD, the Greek physician Galen used oncos (Greek for swelling) to describe all tumours, reserving Hippocrates’ term carcinos for malignant tumours. Galen also used the suffix -oma to indicate cancerous lesions. It is from Galen’s usage that we derive the modern word oncology.[4]

Through the centuries it was discovered that cancer could occur anywhere in the body, but Hippocrates’ humor-theory based treatment remained popular until the 19th century with the discovery of cells.

Modern era
History of cancer chemotherapy
References[edit]1.^ The Pulitzer Prizes. «The 2011 Pulitzer Prize Winners General Nonfiction». Retrieved 22 December 2012.
2.^ «Indian doc’s book on cancer wins Pulitzer Prize». Times of India. Boston. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
3.^ a b «An Oncologist Writes ‘A Biography Of Cancer'». Fresh Air from WHYY. NPR. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
4.^ Okie, Susan (28 November 2010). «Review: «The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer,» by Siddhartha Mukherjee». Denver Post. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
5.^ a b McGrath, Charles (8 November 2010). «How Cancer Acquired Its Own Biographer». The New York Times. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
6.^ http://entertainment.time.com/2011/08/30/all-time-100-best-nonfiction-books/slide/the-emperor-of-all-maladies-by-siddhartha-mukherjee/
7.^ http://6thfloor.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/17/as-if-you-dont-have-enough-to-read/
8.^ Joanna Bourke (10 October 2011). «2011 Wellcome Trust Book Prize shortlist». The Lancet. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
External links[edit]Mukherjee, Siddhartha (29 October 2010). «The Riddle of Cancer Relapse: The Cancer Sleeper Cell». The New York Times. Mukherjee’s New York Times Magazine article based on his book.
The Emperor of All Maladies on Open Library at the Internet Archive
Discussion of The Emperor of All Maladies with Mukherjee, February 18

A hematoma is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery[1] and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries. A hematoma is initially in liquid form spread among the tissues including in sacs between tissues where it may coagulate and solidify before blood is reabsorbed into blood vessels. An ecchymosis is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm.[2]

They may occur among/within many areas such as fat, skin and other organs, connective tissues, bone, joints and muscle.

A collection of blood (or even a hemorrhage) may be aggravated by an anticoagulant, «blood thinner». Blood seepage and collection of blood may occur if heparin is given via an intramuscular route; to avoid this, heparin must be given intravenously or subcutaneously.

It is not to be confused with hemangioma, which is an abnormal buildup/growth of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs.[3]

possibly felt as masses/lumps. Lumps may be caused by the limitation of the blood to a sac, subcutaneous or intramuscular tissue space isolated by fascial planes. This is a key anatomical feature that helps prevent injuries from causing massive blood loss. In most cases the hematoma such as a sac of blood eventually dissolves; however, in some cases they may continue to grow such as due to blood seepage or show no change. If the sac of blood does not disappear, then it may need to be surgically cleaned out/repaired.

The slow process of reabsorption of hematomas can allow the broken down blood cells and hemoglobin pigment to move in the connective tissue. For example, a patient who injures the base of his thumb might cause a hematoma, which will slowly move all through the finger within a week. Gravity is the main determinant of this process.

Hematomas on articulations can reduce mobility of a member and present roughly the same symptoms as a fracture.

In most cases, movement and exercise of the affected muscle is the best way to introduce the collection back into the blood stream.

A mis-diagnosis of a hematoma in the vertebra can sometimes occur; this is correctly called a hemangioma (buildup of cells) or a benign tumor.

Degrees[edit]Petechiae – small pinpoint hematomas less than 3 mm in diameter
Purpura (purple) – a bruise about 1 cm in diameter, generally round in shape
Ecchymosis – subcutaneous extravasation of blood in a thin layer under the skin, i.e. bruising or «black and blue,» over 1 cm in diameter
Etymology[edit]The word «haematoma» came into usage around 1850. The word derives from the Greek roots «heme-» (blood) and -oma, from soma, meaning body = a body of blood. Another etymological derivation would be from «haemat-» and «-oma» = «-ing», thus simply «bleeding».

See also[edit]Metanephric dysplastic hematoma of the sacral region
References[edit]Notes
1.^ «Hematoma, toenail, gross». library.med.utah.edu. 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2013.
2.^ April 10, 2013. «Information on Hematoma Types, Causes, and Treatments on». Emedicinehealth.com. Retrieved 2013-04-11.
3.^ «Hemangioma». U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2016-04-05.

Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate’s principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.[1] RBCs take up oxygen in the lungs, or gills of fish, and release it into tissues while squeezing through the body’s capillaries.

The cytoplasm of erythrocytes is rich in hemoglobin, an iron-containing biomolecule that can bind oxygen and is responsible for the red color of the cells. The cell membrane is composed of proteins and lipids, and this structure provides properties essential for physiological cell function such as deformability and stability while traversing the circulatory system and specifically the capillary network.

In humans, mature red blood cells are flexible and oval biconcave disks. They lack a cell nucleus and most organelles, in order to accommodate maximum space for hemoglobin; they can be viewed as sacks of hemoglobin, with a plasma membrane as the sack. Approximately 2.4 million new erythrocytes are produced per second in human adults.[2] The cells develop in the bone marrow and circulate for about 100–120 days in the body before their components are recycled by macrophages. Each circulation takes about 60 seconds i.e one minute.[3] Approximately a quarter of the cells in the human body are red blood cells.[4][5] Nearly half of the blood’s volume (40% to 45%) is red blood cells.

Red blood cells are also known as RBCs, red cells,[6] red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for «red» and kytos for «hollow vessel», with -cyte translated as «cell» in modern usage). Packed red blood cells (pRBC) are red blood cells that have been donated, processed, and stored in a blood bank for blood transfusion.

The spleen acts as a reservoir of red blood cells, but this effect is somewhat limited in humans. In some other mammals such as dogs and horses, the spleen sequesters large numbers of red blood cells which are dumped into the blood during times of exertion stress, yielding a higher oxygen transport capacity.

Scanning electron micrograph of blood cells. From left to right: human red blood cell, thrombocyte (platelet), leukocyte.Human
Two drops of blood are shown with a bright red oxygenated drop on the left and a deoxygenated drop on the right.
Animation of a typical human red blood cell cycle in the circulatory system. This animation occurs at a faster rate (~20 seconds of the average 60-second cycle) and shows the red blood cell deforming as it enters capillaries, as well as the bars changing color as the cell alternates in states of oxygenation along the circulatory system.A typical human red blood cell has a disk diameter of approximately 6.2–8.2 µm[16] and a thickness at the thickest point of 2–2.5 µm and a minimum thickness in the centre of 0.8–1 µm, being much smaller than most other human cells. These cells have an average volume of about 90 fL[17] with a surface of about 136 μm2, and can swell up to a sphere shape containing 150 fL, without membrane distension.

Adult humans have roughly 20–30 trillion red blood cells at any given time, comprising approximately 70% all cells by number.[18] Women have about 4 to 5 million red blood cells per microliter (cubic millimeter) of blood and men about 5 to 6 million; people living at high altitudes with low oxygen tension will have more). Red blood cells are thus much more common than the other blood particles: there are about 4,000–11,000 white blood cells and about 150,000–400,000 platelets in each microliter of human blood.

Human red blood cells take on average 60 seconds to complete one cycle of circulation.[3][5][19]

The blood’s red color is due to the spectral properties of the hemic iron ions in hemoglobin. Each human red blood cell contains approximately 270 million of these hemoglobin molecules. Each hemoglobin molecule carries four heme groups; hemoglobin comprises about a third of the total cell volume. Hemoglobin is responsible for the transport of more than 98% of the oxygen in the body (the remaining oxygen is carried dissolved in the blood plasma). The red blood cells of an average adult human male store collectively about 2.5 grams of iron, representing about 65% of the total iron contained in the body.[20][21]

diseases including sepsis, haemolytic uremic syndrome, malaria, sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, phosphate depletion, iron deficiency and Wilson’s disease. Eryptosis can be elicited by osmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion as well as a wide variety of endogenous mediators and xenobiotics. Excessive eryptosis is observed in red blood cells lacking the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I or the AMP-activated protein kinase AMPK. Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin, nitric oxide, catecholamines and high concentrations of urea.

Much of the resulting breakdown products are recirculated in the body. The heme constituent of hemoglobin are broken down into iron (Fe3+) and biliverdin. The biliverdin is reduced to bilirubin, which is released into the plasma and recirculated to the liver bound to albumin. The iron is released into the plasma to be recirculated by a carrier protein called transferrin. Almost all red blood cells are removed in this manner from the circulation before they are old enough to hemolyze. Hemolyzed hemoglobin is bound to a protein in plasma called haptoglobin, which is not excreted by the kidney.[46]

Clinical significanceDisease
Affected by Sickle-cell disease, red blood cells alter shape and threaten to damage internal organs.Blood diseases involving the red blood cells include:

Anemias (or anaemias) are diseases characterized by low oxygen transport capacity of the blood, because of low red cell count or some abnormality of the red blood cells or the hemoglobin.
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common anemia; it occurs when the dietary intake or absorption of iron is insufficient, and hemoglobin, which contains iron, cannot be formed
Sickle-cell disease is a genetic disease that results in abnormal hemoglobin

higher viscosity. Another method of blood doping involves injection with erythropoietin in order to stimulate production of red blood cells. Both practices are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

HistoryThe first person to describe red blood cells was the young Dutch biologist Jan Swammerdam, who had used an early microscope in 1658 to study the blood of a frog.[50] Unaware of this work, Anton van Leeuwenhoek provided another microscopic description in 1674, this time providing a more precise description of red blood cells, even approximating their size, «25,000 times smaller than a fine grain of sand».

In 1901, Karl Landsteiner published his discovery of the three main blood groups—A, B, and C (which he later renamed to O). Landsteiner described the regular patterns in which reactions occurred when serum was mixed with red blood cells, thus identifying compatible and conflicting combinations between these blood groups. A year later Alfred von Decastello and Adriano Sturli, two colleagues of Landsteiner, identified a fourth blood group—AB.

In 1959, by use of X-ray crystallography, Dr. Max Perutz was able to unravel the structure of hemoglobin, the red blood cell protein that carries oxygen.[51]

The oldest intact red blood cells ever discovered were found in Ötzi the Iceman, a natural mummy of a man who died around 3255 BCE.

18.^ Bianconi, Eva; Piovesan, Allison; Facchin, Federica; Beraudi, Alina; Casadei, Raffaella; Frabetti, Flavia; Vitale, Lorenza; Pelleri, Maria Chiara; Tassani, Simone (2013-11-01). «An estimation of the number of cells in the human body». Annals of Human Biology. 40 (6): 463–471. doi:10.3109/03014460.2013.807878. ISSN 0301-4460. PMID 23829164.
19.^ Hillman, Robert S.; Ault, Kenneth A.; Rinder, Henry M. (2005). Hematology in Clinical Practice: A Guide to Diagnosis and Management (4 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1. ISBN 0-07-144035-6.
20.^ Iron Metabolism, University of Virginia Pathology. Accessed 22 September 2007.
21.^ Iron Transport and Cellular Uptake by Kenneth R. Bridges, Information Center for Sickle Cell and Thalassemic Disorders. Accessed 22 September 2007.
Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens by Laura Dean. Searchable and downloadable online textbook in the public domain.
Database of vertebrate erythrocyte sizes.
Red Gold, PBS site containing facts and history

1612 Highly Cited Researchers (h>100) according to their Google Scholar Citations public profiles Sixth Edition
RANK NAME ORGANIZATION H-INDEX CITATIONS
1 Sigmund Freud University of Vienna 269 488396
2 Graham Colditz Washington University in St Louis 264 256415
3 Eugene Braunwald Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Harvard Medical School 246 290831
4 Ronald C Kessler Harvard University 245 263006
5 Pierre Bourdieu Centre de Sociologie Européenne; Collège de France 242 528228
7 Solomon H Snyder Johns Hopkins University 240 216313
6 Michel Foucault Collège de France 237 690001
8 Robert Langer Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT 232 216122
9 Bert Vogelstein Johns Hopkins University 230 315600
10 Eric Lander Broad Institute Harvard MIT 225 294683
11 Michael Karin University of California San Diego 223 210430
12 Gordon Guyatt McMaster University 217 187432
13 Michael Graetzel Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne 216 235390
14 Salim Yusuf McMaster University 214 248236
15 Richard A Flavell Yale University; HHMI 214 171241
16 Frank B Hu Harvard University 206 158298
17 T W Robbins University of Cambridge 206 130965
18 Carlo Croce Ohio State University 203 181398
19 Peter Barnes Imperial College London 202 178101
20 Eric Topol Scripps Research Institute

Michel Foucault Philosophy, Collège de France History of ideas, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy

«study room»  «red neck job»

Sci-Hub —  Elbakyan (Russian: Александра Элбакян, 1988, Алма-Ата —нейрофизиолог, создатель сайта Sci-Hub[1][2][3][4][5]1]) is a Kazakhstani graduate student,[2] computer programmer and the creator of the site Sci-Hub.[3][4] Nature has listed her in 2016 in the top ten people that mattered in science,[5] and Ars Technica has compared her to Aaron Swartz.[6]

computer security in Moscow gave her the money to proceed to Freiburg in 2010 to work on a brain-computer interface project, and she developed an interest in transhumanism, which led her to Georgia Institute of Technology in the United States, «Neuroscience and Consciousness».[10][11][12] 

She began Sci-Hub on her return to Kazakhstan in 2011, characterised by Science as «an awe-inspiring act of altruism or a massive criminal enterprise, depending on whom you ask».[15] Following a lawsuit brought in the US by the publisher Elsevier, Elbakyan is presently in hiding due to the risk of extradition;[16] Elsevier has been granted a $15 million injunction against her.[17]  she has enrolled in a history of science master’s program at a “small private university”, thesis focuses on scientific communication.[15]  Nature Publishing Group named Alexandra Elbakyan as one of the 10 people who most mattered in 2016.[18]

На гало-ужине ИЮПАК 11.7.19 в Масон-де-Химие спросил, говорит ли на русском — сказала, нет, но знакомый говорит (ФосА)

EXAMs in BSMU 2017 — Example — Chemistry (2016- Variant 5, 3, )

Variant N 1
Part A.
1. Choose a substance with the highest density in normal conditions:
a) hydrogen; b) ethane; c) hydrogen  bromide;  d) methane.
2. Choose an atomic number for an element from the 4th period and IV B subgroup:
a) 48; b)22; c)32; d) 72
3. Choose substances with covalent nonpolar bonds:
a) H2  b) Br2; c) Cl2O; d) CO2
4. Choose amphoteric oxides:
a) BaO; b) BeO; c) AlzO:; d) NzOs.
5. Choose isomers:
a) CH2=CH-CH=CH2   b) CHC-CH2-CH3
c) CH2=CH2   d) CH3-CH3.
6.  l-propanol react with:
a) hydrogen chloricie;  b) oxygen;
c) ethanol;d) ethane.

7. In case of temperatlrre decrease the equilibriurn of the process
CO (gas) + H2 (gas) < = > CH3OH (l) + Q
will be shifted towards…’
c) hydrogen bromide; d) methane.

8. Indicate pH and the color of litmus in water solution of Cu(No3)2.
9. Write the formulas of the products of the following reaction: MgS + HCI ->

10. Write the formula of calciurn orthophosphate.
1 1. which of the metals is more active than sodiurn (Pb, K, Zn, Hg).
12. The trivial name of 2-arninopropanoic acid is …

Part B.
13. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen chioride (HCl) in 300 mi of its
water solution with the mass percentage of HCl equal to 28 %. The density of that
solution is 1.1 4 glml.
14. Write the structural formula of lactic acid.
15. Write chernical reactions according to the follorving chain of cl-reniical reactions
and balance them (each left substance is a reactant, each right substance is a product)
Mg(NO3)2 -> MgO -> MgCl2 -> Mg(OH)2 ->MgSO4
16. Write chemical reactiot-ts according to the follor,ving chain of chemical reactions
and balance thein (each left substance is a reactant, each right substance is a ploduct)
propanal -+ plopionic acid -> rnethyl propionate -> methanol +dirnethyl ether’
17, Calculate the minimal lrass (g) of potassium hydroxide that is needed for
complete neutralization of 300 g of phospl-roric acid solution with the mass
percentage of phosphoric acid equalto 5o/o.
18, Calculate the maximal mass of hydrogen bromine that can react with 15 g of a
mixture made from 1,3-butadiene and 1-butyne.
19. Balance the reaction taking place in water solution, write the complete and the
short ionic equations of this reaction.
Zn(OH)2 + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2O
20. Balance tlie following reduction-oxidation (redox) leaction using tlie electron
balancing method, u,rite half-reactions of oxidation and reduction.
H3PO3 + AgNO3 + H2O = Ag+ HNO3 + H3PO4

STUDENTS:

My name is Ali. I’m from Iran And studying in Minsk,Belarus (see  Modern and ancient Chemistry,  Persian chemists,

I have written a scientific article about gravity in biology and development and spoke about it in a conference in BSPU university in Minsk.

It can be interesting to Modern Science and Gamov conference,

for Learning English through rhymes and poetry, e.g.  Avicenna or

We can change* to more scientific text of Gravity Hovig  (from  «metal of Cyprus»)
No matter where you’re going
No matter where you’ll be
Wherever the wind is blowing
Let me be your gravity

I can be your hero *(e.g. to force
I can be your fantasy
I can be the cure  (e.g. to strongest?
Yeah
Let me be
Your remedy

Right beside you
I’ll never leave you

Let me be your heart and your company
I’ll let you be the one who can lean on me
I’ll catch you when you fall
When you’re falling free
Let me be, be your gravity

Let me be your wings
When you’re flying high
I’m gonna raise you up till you touch the sky
I’ll catch you when you fall
When you’re falling free
Let me be, be your gravity

Attached inseparably
Like gravity

As high as the highest mountain
As low as the deepest sea
Wherever you settle down
Just let me be your gravity

Let me be your heart and your company
I’ll let you be the one who can lean on me
I’ll catch you when you fall
When you’re falling free
Let me be, be your gravity

Let me be your wings
When you’re flying high
I’m gonna raise you up till you touch the sky
I’ll catch you when you fall
When you’re falling free
Let me be, be your gravity

Touch inseparably
It’s all we’ll ever be
You’ll be gravity

Let me be your heart and your company …

*may  be better

I can be your force
I can be your fantasy
I can be the strongest- not only for man